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Peer-Reviewed Publications

 

Looking for more information about regenerative treatments & stem cell therapy?

We’ve compiled a list of peer-reviewed publications organized by joint, injury, disease and treatment.

Browse the sections below to find articles based on your area of interest.

By Body Part

1. Plasma Rich In Growth Factors (PRGF) As A treatment For High Ankle Sprain In Elite Athletes: A Randomized Control Trial: Syndesmotic sprains are uncommon injuries that require prolonged recovery. Athletes suffering from high ankle sprains benefit from ultrasound-guided PRP injections with a shorter RTP, re-stabilization of the syndesmosis joint and less long-term residual pain. (Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015)

2. Joint Sparing Treatments In Early Ankle Osteoarthritis: Current Procedures And Future Perspectives: Ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) is a severe pathology, mostly affecting a post-traumatic young population. Arthroscopic debridement, arthrodiastasis, osteotomy are the current joint sparing procedures, but, in the available studies, controversial results were achieved, with better outcomes in case of limited degeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be a good solution to prevent or reverse degeneration, due to their immunomodulatory features (able to control the catabolic joint environment) and their regenerative osteochondral capabilities (able to treat the chondral defects). In fact, MSCs may regulate the cytokine cascade and the metalloproteinases release, restoring the osteochondral tissue as well. (J Exp Orthop. 2016)

3. Achilles Tendon Injuries: This publication reviews Achilles tendon injuries, their diagnosis, treatment options and outcomes. (Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2017)

1. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher: UCL (ulnar collateral ligament) tears in the elbow are common for overhead athletes. Surgical reconstruction does not allow athletes to regain their previous level of ability and requires a 1-2 year recovery period. This report examined the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher, as there is success with a similar treatment for the rotator cuff. No complications were encountered and the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and returned to baseball. (Case Rep Orthop. 2015)

 

1. Efficacy Of Autologous Stem Cell-Based Therapy For Osteonecrosis Of The Femoral Head In Sickle Cell Disease: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study: Stem cell therapy with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is an option for improving joint function in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) numbers and their osteogenic differentiation are decreased in patients with ONFH. At the final follow-up (60 months) there was a significant improvement in clinical joint symptoms and pain relief. (Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2015)

 

1. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivered Via Intra-Articular Injection To The Knee Following Partial Medial Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study: This double-blind, controlled study involved 55 patients at 7 institutions who underwent a partial medial meniscectomy. Those patients who received mesenchymal stem cells, injected 7-10 days after the meniscectomy, demonstrated meniscus regeneration and a significant reduction in knee pain. (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014)

2. Intra-Articular Injection Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells For The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis Of The Knee: A Proof-Of-Concept Clinical Trial: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were injected into 18 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, to treat cartilage loss. Patients who received the higher-dose of MSCs saw a decrease in their cartilage defect and in increase in the volume of cartilage, resulting in improved function and decrease pain of the knee joint. (Stem Cells. 2014)

3. Treatment Of Knee Osteoarthritis With Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Two-Year Follow-Up Results: Mesenchymal Stem Cell therapy in 12 patients was followed up to 2 years. The functional improvement was up to 78% as well as a significant improvement in the quality of the cartilage was noted 2 years after treatment. The authors concluded that stem cell therapy may be a valid alternative treatment for chronic knee osteoarthritis. The intervention is simple, does not require hospitalization or surgery, provides pain relief, and significantly improves cartilage quality. (Transplantation. 2014)

4. Management Of Knee Osteoarthritis By Combined Stromal Vascular Fraction Cell Therapy, Platelet-Rich Plasma, And Musculoskeletal Exercises: A Case Series: To manage unresolved symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, patients were administered a treatment of combined stromal vascular fraction cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and musculoskeletal exercises. Improved outcomes were obtained and all patients’ scores of pain improved to greater than 96; and quality of life scores to greater than 93 (out of 100). Functional performance measures of mobility returned to normal. (J Pain Res. 2015)

5. ACL Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy: This review aims to focus on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of ACL healing, the nature and potential of ligament derived stem/progenitor cells as well as on the potential and the limitations of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating injured ACL. (Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014)

6. Role Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Meniscal Repair: Meniscus integrity is the key for joint health of the knee. Therefore, the main goal of every meniscus treatment should be the maintenance of as much meniscus tissue as possible. Repair of meniscus tears can be achieved by meniscus suture. However, in a recently published analysis, the long-term outcome of meniscus repair showed a mean failure rate of 24%. As an alternative treatment, locally applied mesenchymal stem cells produced differentiated meniscus-like tissue in meniscus tears indicating that mesenchymal-based cells, harvested from the bone marrow, enhance meniscus healing in critical-size meniscus tears. (Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics 2014)

7. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial) Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). Modern therapeutic methods stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. This article discusses how PRP injections reduce symptoms and improve quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee osteoarthritis who have not responded to conventional treatment. (Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2015)

8. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. This clinical trial’s purpose was to determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment. It found that ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee osteoarthritis. (Am J Sports Med. 2016)

1. A Prospective Multi-Site Registry Study Of A Specific Protocol Of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate For The Treatment Of Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears and Osteoarthritis: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. Here, the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears. A decrease in pain and an improvement in function was observed post-treatment. (Journal of Pain Research. 2015)

2. Review Article: Regenerative Techniques For Repair Of Rotator Cuff Tears: The failure rate of rotator cuff repair is high. Regenerative techniques using material scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors help augment repair and regenerate tissue. This study reviewed the literature on tissue regenerative techniques including growth factors, platelet rich plasma (PRP), stem cells, and tendon augmentation grafts. (Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. 2013)

By Injuries & Disease

 

1. ACL Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy: This review aims to focus on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of ACL healing, the nature and potential of ligament derived stem/progenitor cells as well as on the potential and the limitations of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating injured ACL. (Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014)

1. Achilles Tendon Injuries: This publication reviews Achilles tendon injuries, their diagnosis, treatment options and outcomes. (Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2017)

 

 

1. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivered Via Intra-Articular Injection To The Knee Following Partial Medial Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study: This double-blind, controlled study involved 55 patients at 7 institutions who underwent a partial medial meniscectomy. Those patients who received mesenchymal stem cells, injected 7-10 days after the meniscectomy, demonstrated meniscus regeneration and a significant reduction in knee pain. (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014)

2. Intra-Articular Injection Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells For The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis Of The Knee: A Proof-Of-Concept Clinical Trial: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were injected into 18 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, to treat cartilage loss. Patients who received the higher-dose of MSCs saw a decrease in their cartilage defect and in increase in the volume of cartilage, resulting in improved function and decrease pain of the knee joint. (Stem Cells. 2014)

3. Treatment Of Knee Osteoarthritis With Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Two-Year Follow-Up Results: Mesenchymal Stem Cell therapy in 12 patients was followed up to 2 years. The functional improvement was up to 78% as well as a significant improvement in the quality of the cartilage was noted 2 years after treatment. The authors concluded that stem cell therapy may be a valid alternative treatment for chronic knee osteoarthritis. The intervention is simple, does not require hospitalization or surgery, provides pain relief, and significantly improves cartilage quality. (Transplantation. 2014)

4. Stem cell therapies for treatment of cartilage and bone disorders: osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and non-union fractures. A concise review of emerging mesenchymal stem cell applications for bone-related pathologies including cartilage, avascular necrosis, and fractures. (PM R. 2015)

5. A Prospective Multi-Site Registry Study Of A Specific Protocol Of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate For The Treatment Of Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears and Osteoarthritis: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. Here, the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears. A decrease in pain and an improvement in function was observed post-treatment. (Journal of Pain Research. 2015)

6. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial) Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). Modern therapeutic methods stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. This article discusses how PRP injections reduce symptoms and improve quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee osteoarthritis who have not responded to conventional treatment. (Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2015)

7. Joint Sparing Treatments In Early Ankle Osteoarthritis: Current Procedures And Future Perspectives: Ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) is a severe pathology, mostly affecting a post-traumatic young population. Arthroscopic debridement, arthrodiastasis, osteotomy are the current joint sparing procedures, but, in the available studies, controversial results were achieved, with better outcomes in case of limited degeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be a good solution to prevent or reverse degeneration, due to their immunomodulatory features (able to control the catabolic joint environment) and their regenerative osteochondral capabilities (able to treat the chondral defects). In fact, MSCs may regulate the cytokine cascade and the metalloproteinases release, restoring the osteochondral tissue as well. (J Exp Orthop. 2016)

8. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. This clinical trial’s purpose was to determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment. It found that ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee osteoarthritis. (Am J Sports Med. 2016)

9. Identification Of α2-macroglobulin As A Master Inhibitor Of Cartilage-Degrading Factors That Attenuates The Progression Of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis: In this article, authors isolated a glycoprotein present in our own blood that has the ability to slow down the process of cartilage breakdown present with arthritis. Isolation methods, as well as the quantity of alpha 2 macroglobulin needed, are under evaluation. Since this is a naturally occurring product in one’s own blood, it certainly holds great promise without any significant downside. (Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014)

1. Stem cell therapies for treatment of cartilage and bone disorders: osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and non-union fractures. A concise review of emerging mesenchymal stem cell applications for bone-related pathologies including cartilage, avascular necrosis, and fractures. (PM R. 2015)

2. Intra-Articular Injection Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells For The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis Of The Knee: A Proof-Of-Concept Clinical Trial: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were injected into 18 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, to treat cartilage loss. Patients who received the higher-dose of MSCs saw a decrease in their cartilage defect and in increase in the volume of cartilage, resulting in improved function and decrease pain of the knee joint. (Stem Cells. 2014)

3. Treatment Of Knee Osteoarthritis With Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Two-Year Follow-Up Results: Mesenchymal Stem Cell therapy in 12 patients was followed up to 2 years. The functional improvement was up to 78% as well as a significant improvement in the quality of the cartilage was noted 2 years after treatment. The authors concluded that stem cell therapy may be a valid alternative treatment for chronic knee osteoarthritis. The intervention is simple, does not require hospitalization or surgery, provides pain relief, and significantly improves cartilage quality. (Transplantation. 2014)

4. Management Of Knee Osteoarthritis By Combined Stromal Vascular Fraction Cell Therapy, Platelet-Rich Plasma, And Musculoskeletal Exercises: A Case Series: To manage unresolved symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, patients were administered a treatment of combined stromal vascular fraction cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and musculoskeletal exercises. Improved outcomes were obtained and all patients’ scores of pain improved to greater than 96; and quality of life scores to greater than 93 (out of 100). Functional performance measures of mobility returned to normal. (J Pain Res. 2015)

5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Treating Articular Cartilage Defects and Osteoarthritis:This review outlines the current status of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) used in cartilage tissue engineering and in cell therapy seeking to repair articular cartilage defects and related problems. MSC-based technologies show promise when used to repair cartilage defects in joints. (Cell Transplant. 2015)

6. Efficacy Of Autologous Stem Cell-Based Therapy For Osteonecrosis Of The Femoral Head In Sickle Cell Disease: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study: Stem cell therapy with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is an option for improving joint function in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) numbers and their osteogenic differentiation are decreased in patients with ONFH. At the final follow-up (60 months) there was a significant improvement in clinical joint symptoms and pain relief. (Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2015)

7. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial) Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). Modern therapeutic methods stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. This article discusses how PRP injections reduce symptoms and improve quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee osteoarthritis who have not responded to conventional treatment. (Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2015)

1. Stem cell therapies for treatment of cartilage and bone disorders: osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and non-union fractures. A concise review of emerging mesenchymal stem cell applications for bone-related pathologies including cartilage, avascular necrosis, and fractures. (PM R. 2015)

2. Innovative Strategies For Treatment Of Soft Tissue Injuries In Human And Animal Athletes: This is a review of the recent progress in the management of musculoskeletal disorders, as the current common strategies result in inferior tissues after injury. Novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy and stem cells are discussed, as we look to enhance the outcome of surgical procedures and speed up the healing period. (Med Sport Sci. 2009)

3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Treating Articular Cartilage Defects and Osteoarthritis:This review outlines the current status of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) used in cartilage tissue engineering and in cell therapy seeking to repair articular cartilage defects and related problems. MSC-based technologies show promise when used to repair cartilage defects in joints. (Cell Transplant. 2015)

4. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivered Via Intra-Articular Injection To The Knee Following Partial Medial Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study: This double-blind, controlled study involved 55 patients at 7 institutions who underwent a partial medial meniscectomy. Those patients who received mesenchymal stem cells, injected 7-10 days after the meniscectomy, demonstrated meniscus regeneration and a significant reduction in knee pain. (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014)

5. Innovative Strategies For Treatment Of Soft Tissue Injuries In Human And Animal Athletes: This is a review of the recent progress in the management of musculoskeletal disorders, as the current common strategies result in inferior tissues after injury. Novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy and stem cells are discussed, as we look to enhance the outcome of surgical procedures and speed up the healing period. (Med Sport Sci. 2009)

6. Role Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Meniscal Repair: Meniscus integrity is the key for joint health of the knee. Therefore, the main goal of every meniscus treatment should be the maintenance of as much meniscus tissue as possible. Repair of meniscus tears can be achieved by meniscus suture. However, in a recently published analysis, the long-term outcome of meniscus repair showed a mean failure rate of 24%. As an alternative treatment, locally applied mesenchymal stem cells produced differentiated meniscus-like tissue in meniscus tears indicating that mesenchymal-based cells, harvested from the bone marrow, enhance meniscus healing in critical-size meniscus tears. (Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics 2014)

1. Adipose-Derived Adult Stem Cells & New Technique For Intracavernosal Injection For Erectile Dysfunction: Novel Approach To Treat Diabetes Mellitus. Erectus Shot Technique: Penile injection using patients own stem cells using the erectus shot technique has shown improvement in the length of time of sustained erection. In patients with diabetes and post-radiation, impotency improvement in erection time has been found to be significantly better than using medications alone. In patients where medical therapy has failed or is considered risky, mesenchymal stem cells offer a potential new safe avenue for treatment. (Integr Mol Med. 2016)

1. Intra-articular Injections Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) As A Treatment For Hemophilic Arthropathy: This article reviews the concept of using intra-articular injections of MSCs as a promising treatment for those with hemophilic arthropathy. (Expert Rev Hematol. 2016)

1. ACL Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy: This review aims to focus on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of ACL healing, the nature and potential of ligament derived stem/progenitor cells as well as on the potential and the limitations of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating injured ACL. (Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014)

2. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher: UCL (ulnar collateral ligament) tears in the elbow are common for overhead athletes. Surgical reconstruction does not allow athletes to regain their previous level of ability and requires a 1-2 year recovery period. This report examined the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher, as there is success with a similar treatment for the rotator cuff. No complications were encountered and the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and returned to baseball. (Case Rep Orthop. 2015)

1. Update On Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy In Lupus & Scleroderma: Current systemic therapies are rarely curative for patients with severe life-threatening forms of autoimmune diseases (ADs). During the past 15 years, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to cure some patients with severe AD refractory to all other available therapies. As a consequence, ADs such as lupus and scleroderma have become an emerging indication for cell therapy. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from bone marrow and other sites, display specific immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties and appear as ideal tools to treat such diseases. This article aims at summarizing recent knowledge acquired in the field of MSC-based therapies for lupus and scleroderma. (Arthritis Research & Therapy, 2015)

1. Role Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Meniscal Repair: Meniscus integrity is the key for joint health of the knee. Therefore, the main goal of every meniscus treatment should be the maintenance of as much meniscus tissue as possible. Repair of meniscus tears can be achieved by meniscus suture. However, in a recently published analysis, the long-term outcome of meniscus repair showed a mean failure rate of 24%. As an alternative treatment, locally applied mesenchymal stem cells produced differentiated meniscus-like tissue in meniscus tears indicating that mesenchymal-based cells, harvested from the bone marrow, enhance meniscus healing in critical-size meniscus tears. (Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics 2014)

1. A Prospective Multi-Site Registry Study Of A Specific Protocol Of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate For The Treatment Of Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears and Osteoarthritis: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. Here, the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears. A decrease in pain and an improvement in function was observed post-treatment. (Journal of Pain Research. 2015)

2. Review Article: Regenerative Techniques For Repair Of Rotator Cuff Tears: The failure rate of rotator cuff repair is high. Regenerative techniques using material scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors help augment repair and regenerate tissue. This study reviewed the literature on tissue regenerative techniques including growth factors, platelet rich plasma (PRP), stem cells, and tendon augmentation grafts. (Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. 2013)

1. Update On Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy In Lupus & Scleroderma: Current systemic therapies are rarely curative for patients with severe life-threatening forms of autoimmune diseases (ADs). During the past 15 years, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to cure some patients with severe AD refractory to all other available therapies. As a consequence, ADs such as lupus and scleroderma have become an emerging indication for cell therapy. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from bone marrow and other sites, display specific immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties and appear as ideal tools to treat such diseases. This article aims at summarizing recent knowledge acquired in the field of MSC-based therapies for lupus and scleroderma. (Arthritis Research & Therapy, 2015)

1. A Prospective Multi-Site Registry Study Of A Specific Protocol Of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate For The Treatment Of Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears and Osteoarthritis: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. Here, the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears. A decrease in pain and an improvement in function was observed post-treatment. (Journal of Pain Research. 2015)

2. Review Article: Regenerative Techniques For Repair Of Rotator Cuff Tears: The failure rate of rotator cuff repair is high. Regenerative techniques using material scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors help augment repair and regenerate tissue. This study reviewed the literature on tissue regenerative techniques including growth factors, platelet rich plasma (PRP), stem cells, and tendon augmentation grafts. (Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. 2013)

1. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher: UCL (ulnar collateral ligament) tears in the elbow are common for overhead athletes. Surgical reconstruction does not allow athletes to regain their previous level of ability and requires a 1-2 year recovery period. This report examined the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher, as there is success with a similar treatment for the rotator cuff. No complications were encountered and the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and returned to baseball. (Case Rep Orthop. 2015)

By Treatment

1. A Prospective Multi-Site Registry Study Of A Specific Protocol Of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate For The Treatment Of Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears and Osteoarthritis: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. Here, the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears. A decrease in pain and an improvement in function was observed post-treatment. (Journal of Pain Research. 2015)

2. Efficacy Of Autologous Stem Cell-Based Therapy For Osteonecrosis Of The Femoral Head In Sickle Cell Disease: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study: Stem cell therapy with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is an option for improving joint function in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) numbers and their osteogenic differentiation are decreased in patients with ONFH. At the final follow-up (60 months) there was a significant improvement in clinical joint symptoms and pain relief. (Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2015)

1. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivered Via Intra-Articular Injection To The Knee Following Partial Medial Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study: This double-blind, controlled study involved 55 patients at 7 institutions who underwent a partial medial meniscectomy. Those patients who received mesenchymal stem cells, injected 7-10 days after the meniscectomy, demonstrated meniscus regeneration and a significant reduction in knee pain. (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014)
1. A New Nonenzymatic Method & Device To Obtain A Fat Tissue Derivative Highly Enriched In Pericyte-Like Elements By Mild Mechanical Forces From Human Lipoaspirates: This study evaluates Lipogems, a system designed to provide ready-to-use fat tissue, from which hMSCs can be extracted. While the device shows promising amount of stem cell like cells in the sample, its clinical application and outcomes are yet to be determined. (Cell Transplant 2013)

2. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability: In this article, the authors extract a sample of fat tissue using the Lipogems device to show how the sample’s stem cell like cells help the proliferation of cells in the rotator cuff. In additional to stimulating local cells, Lipogems-derived fat cells also caused new blood channel formation, promoting further healing. Further evaluation is needed. (Stem Cells Int. 2016)

3. Angiogenic & Anti-inflammatory Properties Of Micro-Fragmented Fat Tissue & Its Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: This is a study of cells extacted using the Lipogems device. Besides exhibiting stem cell like properties, these cells also demonstrated the ability to suppress inflammation. Authors claim the sample of fat cells contains several growth and anti-inflammatory factors. Further study is needed for consistent results. (Vasc Cell. 2016)

1. ACL Injuries and Stem Cell Therapy: This review aims to focus on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of ACL healing, the nature and potential of ligament derived stem/progenitor cells as well as on the potential and the limitations of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating injured ACL. (Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014)

2. Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Delivered Via Intra-Articular Injection To The Knee Following Partial Medial Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study: This double-blind, controlled study involved 55 patients at 7 institutions who underwent a partial medial meniscectomy. Those patients who received mesenchymal stem cells, injected 7-10 days after the meniscectomy, demonstrated meniscus regeneration and a significant reduction in knee pain. (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014)

3. Intra-Articular Injection Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells For The Treatment Of Osteoarthritis Of The Knee: A Proof-Of-Concept Clinical Trial: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were injected into 18 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, to treat cartilage loss. Patients who received the higher-dose of MSCs saw a decrease in their cartilage defect and in increase in the volume of cartilage, resulting in improved function and decrease pain of the knee joint. (Stem Cells. 2014)

4. Treatment Of Knee Osteoarthritis With Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Two-Year Follow-Up Results: Mesenchymal Stem Cell therapy in 12 patients was followed up to 2 years. The functional improvement was up to 78% as well as a significant improvement in the quality of the cartilage was noted 2 years after treatment. The authors concluded that stem cell therapy may be a valid alternative treatment for chronic knee osteoarthritis. The intervention is simple, does not require hospitalization or surgery, provides pain relief, and significantly improves cartilage quality. (Transplantation. 2014)

5. Stem cell therapies for treatment of cartilage and bone disorders: osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and non-union fractures. A concise review of emerging mesenchymal stem cell applications for bone-related pathologies including cartilage, avascular necrosis, and fractures. (PM R. 2015)

6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Treating Articular Cartilage Defects and Osteoarthritis:This review outlines the current status of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) used in cartilage tissue engineering and in cell therapy seeking to repair articular cartilage defects and related problems. MSC-based technologies show promise when used to repair cartilage defects in joints. (Cell Transplant. 2015)

7. Efficacy Of Autologous Stem Cell-Based Therapy For Osteonecrosis Of The Femoral Head In Sickle Cell Disease: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study: Stem cell therapy with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is an option for improving joint function in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) numbers and their osteogenic differentiation are decreased in patients with ONFH. At the final follow-up (60 months) there was a significant improvement in clinical joint symptoms and pain relief. (Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2015)

8. Role Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Meniscal Repair: Meniscus integrity is the key for joint health of the knee. Therefore, the main goal of every meniscus treatment should be the maintenance of as much meniscus tissue as possible. Repair of meniscus tears can be achieved by meniscus suture. However, in a recently published analysis, the long-term outcome of meniscus repair showed a mean failure rate of 24%. As an alternative treatment, locally applied mesenchymal stem cells produced differentiated meniscus-like tissue in meniscus tears indicating that mesenchymal-based cells, harvested from the bone marrow, enhance meniscus healing in critical-size meniscus tears. (Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics 2014)

9. Joint Sparing Treatments In Early Ankle Osteoarthritis: Current Procedures And Future Perspectives: Ankle osteoarthritis (AOA) is a severe pathology, mostly affecting a post-traumatic young population. Arthroscopic debridement, arthrodiastasis, osteotomy are the current joint sparing procedures, but, in the available studies, controversial results were achieved, with better outcomes in case of limited degeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be a good solution to prevent or reverse degeneration, due to their immunomodulatory features (able to control the catabolic joint environment) and their regenerative osteochondral capabilities (able to treat the chondral defects). In fact, MSCs may regulate the cytokine cascade and the metalloproteinases release, restoring the osteochondral tissue as well. (J Exp Orthop. 2016)

1. Antimicrobial Activity Of Platelet (PLT)-Poor Plasma, PLT-Rich Plasma, PLT Gel, And Solvent/Detergent-Treated PLT Lysate Biomaterials Against Wound Bacteria: Platelet (PLT) gels exhibit antimicrobial activity useful for wound healing. Plasma complement is mostly responsible for the activity of plasma and PLT biomaterials against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus. Activation of the coagulation to prepare PG may reduce antimicrobial activity. These findings may help optimize the control of wound infections by blood biomaterials. (Transfusion. 2013)

2. Protocol For Obtaining Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), Platelet-Poor Plasma (PPP), and Thrombin For Autologous Use: Plasma has been widely studied and used in many different situations to speed up healing with better tissue adherence and hemostasis. Research projects are now attempting to isolate platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP), making better use of their properties, particularly during operations and for wounds that are slow to heal. This article suggests a protocol for obtaining PRP, PPP, and human thrombin simultaneously, for autologous use, in a way that eliminates the possibilities of viral contamination and allergic reactions. (Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2012)

1. Is Platelet-Rich Plasma a Future Therapy in Pain Management? Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has the potential to regenerate tissues through the effects of bioactive molecules and growth factors in the alpha granules of circulated platelets. (Crossmark)

2. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial) Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). Modern therapeutic methods stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. This article discusses how PRP injections reduce symptoms and improve quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee osteoarthritis who have not responded to conventional treatment. (Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2015)

3. Management Of Knee Osteoarthritis By Combined Stromal Vascular Fraction Cell Therapy, Platelet-Rich Plasma, And Musculoskeletal Exercises: A Case Series: To manage unresolved symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, patients were administered a treatment of combined stromal vascular fraction cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and musculoskeletal exercises. Improved outcomes were obtained and all patients’ scores of pain improved to greater than 96; and quality of life scores to greater than 93 (out of 100). Functional performance measures of mobility returned to normal. (J Pain Res. 2015)

4. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP) Versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial) Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc). Modern therapeutic methods stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a complex of growth factors. This article discusses how PRP injections reduce symptoms and improve quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee osteoarthritis who have not responded to conventional treatment. (Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2015)

5. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher: UCL (ulnar collateral ligament) tears in the elbow are common for overhead athletes. Surgical reconstruction does not allow athletes to regain their previous level of ability and requires a 1-2 year recovery period. This report examined the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher, as there is success with a similar treatment for the rotator cuff. No complications were encountered and the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and returned to baseball. (Case Rep Orthop. 2015)

6. Review Article: Regenerative Techniques For Repair Of Rotator Cuff Tears: The failure rate of rotator cuff repair is high. Regenerative techniques using material scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors help augment repair and regenerate tissue. This study reviewed the literature on tissue regenerative techniques including growth factors, platelet rich plasma (PRP), stem cells, and tendon augmentation grafts. (Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. 2013)

7. Sports Medicine And Platelet-Rich Plasma: Nonsurgical Therapy: An assessment of the effects of platelet-rich therapies for treating musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The conclusion? PRP does have a role when conservative treatment has failed and the next treatment option is an invasive surgical procedure. (Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2015)

8. Plasma Rich In Growth Factors (PRGF) As A treatment For High Ankle Sprain In Elite Athletes: A Randomized Control Trial: Syndesmotic sprains are uncommon injuries that require prolonged recovery. Athletes suffering from high ankle sprains benefit from ultrasound-guided PRP injections with a shorter RTP, re-stabilization of the syndesmosis joint and less long-term residual pain. (Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015)

9. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. This clinical trial’s purpose was to determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment. It found that ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee osteoarthritis. (Am J Sports Med. 2016)

10. Platelet-Rich Plasma Promotes Healing Of Osteoporotic Fractures: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures and to clarify the best concentration of PRP. The results indicated certain concentrations of PRP can effectively enhance the healing of osteoporotic fractures, and medium-concentration PRP is a suitable concentration to use in practice. (Orthopedics. 2013)

11. PPlatelet-Rich Plasma, A Source Of Autologous Growth Factors And Biomimetic Scaffold For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: While injured peripheral nerves can regenerate, the recovery is often suboptimal. There is increasing evidence demonstrating that PRP, injected at the site of injury, can improve the recovery. (Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 2016)

1. Identification Of α2-macroglobulin As A Master Inhibitor Of Cartilage-Degrading Factors That Attenuates The Progression Of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis: In this article, authors isolated a glycoprotein present in our own blood that has the ability to slow down the process of cartilage breakdown present with arthritis. Isolation methods, as well as the quantity of alpha 2 macroglobulin needed, are under evaluation. Since this is a naturally occurring product in one’s own blood, it certainly holds great promise without any significant downside. (Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014)